The Root Chakra (Muladhara) is located at the base of the spine and is associated with survival. Our Fight or Flight response is under this chakra's control. The Root Chakra's color is red and it is represented by a lotus with four petals. This chakra is related to instinct, security, survival and also to basic human potentiality. Physically, Muladhara governs sexuality, mentally it governs stability, emotionally it governs sensuality, and spiritually it governs a sense of security. It is this chakra that grounds us and gives us stability to stand on our own. It is the chakra that is in control when we go out into the world to make our own way.
The Root Chakra contains our survival instincts and how we relate to our physical body. It's power is primal in nature since it contains our will to survive. Our sexual and aggressive urges including anger, pain and desire are held here. The Kundalini Force resides here. Vitality and regeneration are part of this chakra. It is represented by fire and earth and our ability to be grounded. This chakra emanates down to the earth rather than out from the body. It's element is earth because of the grounding nature of "roots".
Survival and grounding are the root chakra's central issues and it relates to our self preservation with stability, grounding, physical health, prosperity and trust as it's goals. The identity is with self and the physical. It is this chakra that is in charge when we are trying to make a name for ourselves in our chosen field of endeavor or when we first become individuals as children or adolescents. The main adversary of this chakra is fear. Fear of failure, fear of the unknown or fear of being able to succeed.
When this chakra is deficient the person will have fear of things that have no basis for fear, a lack of discipline, be restless, possibly underweight and have a "spaciness" about that. They may be unable to commit or lack the ability to stay focused on one thing for the period of time needed to complete the task.
When this chakra is excessive the person will experience a heaviness or sluggishness. They tend to be obese and may also have hoarding tendencies. They may be obsessive in their materialism and greed since they are overly concerned about having what they need to be stable in their environment.